Skip to main content
kreitzberg library

Kreitzberg Library for Online Students

Citing Sources

Information on how to write APA, Chicago Style, and MLA citations and bibliographies.

Need Some Help?

JavaScript disabled or chat unavailable.

Email checked 7 days a week

email  Email Us! (

phone   802.485.2179

Frequently Asked Questions

When to Cite

You Do Not Need to Cite
  • Common knowledge: What does that mean? Common knowledge refers to facts that most people are aware of, for example:
    • The sun rises in the east and sets in the West
    • Thirteen colonies formed the United States
    • John Lennon was assassinated.
  • Your own opinions/ideas: "It is a mistake to overlook smaller, lower profile markets because..."
General Tips  
  • Keep track of your sources: Start saving sources as you find them in order to stay organized. Save them to a citation management tool (like EasyBib or Zotero, see Citation Tools tab), email them to yourself, or print them out. 
  • Take good notes: Keep track of page numbers and mark sections of text that you use. Keep a research log; copy the wording, punctuation, and spelling exactly as it appears in the original text. This will save you lots of stress later.
  • Ask your professor: Always verify with your prof if unsure of whether a citation is required. 
  • Don't procrastinate: Unintentional plagiarism is usually the result of disorganization. Follow these tips and don't wait until the last minute. 

How and Why We Cite