Skip to Main Content
Norwich University Kreitzberg Library

Cite My Sources

Information on how to credit sources using APA, MLA, and Chicago styles

Chicago Style Manual

Notes and Bibliography

In the Notes and Bibliography system, add a numbered footnote at the bottom of the page to cite another source in-text. Then, include the complete citation information in a bibliography at the end of your paper. 

General format:

Notes
1. First and Last Name(s) of Authors, Title of the Source, and other publication details like the publisher, journal information, date, page numbers, etc. 

In the notes, elements of a reference are separated by a comma. A book publisher and/or year are included in parenthesis ( ).

Shortened Notes

2. Last Name, Shortened Title, page number(s).

When you are citing the same source immediately after another note, the title may be omitted. The most recent edition of the CMOS discourages the use of the abbreviation ibid. in such cases.

Bibliography

Last Name, First Name and First Name Last Name. "Title of an Article." Title of the Source and other publication details like the publisher, journal information, date, page numbers, etc. 

In the bibliography at the end of your paper, elements of a reference are separated by a period. Include a comma before the year.

I'm citing a...

  1. Author(s) In the notes, list all authors as normal. In the bibliography, list the first author's last name first.
  2. "Title of the Article" Use headline capitalization and quotation marks.
  3. Title of the Journal Use title capitalization and italicize.
  4. Volume Include the volume number of the journal.
  5. Issue Number If there are multiple issues in a journal, include a comma , after the volume and no.#.
  6. (Year): Include the year the article was published in parentheses, followed by a colon :
  7. Page number (Notes) or Page range (Bibliography) xx-xx.
  8. DOI (Digital Object Identifier) If the journal article has a DOI, include it last.

Example:

Notes
1. Ali Balci et al., "War Decision and Neoclassical Realism: The Entry of the Ottoman Empire into the First World War," War in History 27, no. 4 (November 2020): 643, https://doi.org/10.1177/0968344518789707.

Shortened Notes
2. Balci et al., "War Decision and Neoclassical Realism," 643.

Bibliography
Balci, Ali, Tuncay Kardaş, İsmail Ediz, and Yildirim Turan. "War Decision and Neoclassical Realism: The Entry of the Ottoman Empire into the First World War." War in History 27, no. 4 (November 2020): 643-669. https://doi.org/10.1177/0968344518789707.

See 14.168-87 in the CMOS for further examples.

  1. Author(s) In the notes, list all authors as normal. In the bibliography, list the first author's last name first.
  2. "Title of the Article" Use headline capitalization and quotation marks.
  3. Title of the Newspaper or Magazine Use title capitalization and italicize.
  4. Date Include the Month Day, Year the article was published.
  5. URL Include a link to the article if available online.

Example:

Notes
1. Jill Lepore, "When Black History Is Unearthed, Who Gets to Speak for the Dead?," New Yorker September 27, 2021, https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2021/10/04/when-black-history-is-unearthed-who-gets-to-speak-for-the-dead.

Shortened Notes
2. Lepore, "When Black History is Unearthed."

Bibliography
Lepore, Jill. "When Black History Is Unearthed, Who Gets to Speak for the Dead?" New Yorker September 27, 2021. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2021/10/04/when-black-history-is-unearthed-who-gets-to-speak-for-the-dead.

See 14.188-90 (magazines), 14.191-200 (newspapers), and 14.208 (blogs) in the CMOS for further examples.

  1. Author(s) In the notes, list all authors as normal. In the bibliography, list the first author's last name first.
  2. Title of the Book Use headline capitalization and italics.
  3. Place of publication: List the state (if from the U.S.) or the country associated with the published, then a colon :.
  4. Publisher List the publisher of the book. This is usually listed on the copyright page.
  5. Year Include the year in which the book you are citing was published.
  6. Page number Include any relevant page numbers you are citing in the notes only.
  7. URL or name of database For books consulted online.

Example:

Notes
1. Maya Angelou, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (New York: Random House, 2002), 102.

2. Fancis Bremer, The Puritan Experiment: New England Society from Bradford to Edwards (Lebanon, NH: University Press of New England, 1995), 121, ProQuest Ebook Central.

Shortened Notes
3. Angelou, Caged Bird, 102.

4. Bremer, Puritan Experiment, 121.

Bibliography
Angelou, Maya. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. New York: Random House, 2002.

Brremer, Francis. The Puritan Experiment: New England Society from Bradford to Edwards Lebanon, NH: University Press of New England, 1995. ProQuest Ebook Central.

See 14.100-163 in the CMOS for further examples.

  1. Author(s) of the Chapter. In the notes, list all authors as normal. In the bibliography, list the first author's last name first.
  2. "Title of the Chapter or Essay" Use headline capitalization and quotation marks.
  3. Title of the Book Include "in" then the the book in headline capitalization and italics.
  4. Name of the Editor(s) Include "ed." or "eds." in the notes and "edited by" in the bibliography before the name of the editor(s).
  5. Place of publication: List the state (if from the U.S.) or the country associated with the published, then a colon :.
  6. Publisher List the publisher of the book. This is usually listed on the copyright page.
  7. Year Include the year in which the book you are citing was published.
  8. Page numbers In a note, cite specific pages. In the bibliography, include the page range for the chapter or part.

Example:

Notes
1. Richard Rodriguez, "Aria: A Memoir of a Bilingual Childhood," in The Best American Essays of the Century, ed. Joyce Carol Oats (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2000), 447.

Shortened Notes
2. Rodriguez, "Aria," 450.

Bibliography
Rodriguez, Richard. "Aria: A Memoir of a Bilingual Childhood." In The Best American Essays of the Century, edited by Joyce Carol Oats, 447-466. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2000.

See 14.103-5 and 14.106-12 in the CMOS for further examples.

  1. Author In the notes, include the author, or if there is no specific author, list the title of the web page you are citing in quotation marks. In the bibliography, list the organization responsible for the website first.
  2. Name of the Website If the name of the site is different from the author or the title of the page.
  3. Date If there is a date of last review or last modified, list it here. If there is no date, list the date you accessed the web page.
  4. URL.

Example:

Notes
1. "Center for Global Resilience & Security," Norwich University, accessed October 4, 2021, https://www.norwich.edu/cgrs.

Shortened Notes
2. Norwich University, "Center for Global Resilience & Security."

Bibliography
Norwich University. "Center for Global Resilience & Security." Accessed October 4, 2021. https://www.norwich.edu/cgrs.

See 14.205-10 in the CMOS for further examples.

 

Creative Commons License CC by NC 4.0 This page was adapted from a guide created by Tess Withorn at CSUDH Library and licensed under a Creative Commons Atribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.

Need Help?

JavaScript disabled or chat unavailable.

Contact Us

phone802.485.2179 - Research Help
phone802.485.2176 - Service Desk