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Turabian Style Manual

Chicago vs. Turabian

Chicago and Turabian Styles differ in the numbering of their notes:

  • In Turabian Style citations, a superscript 1 is used for endnote and footnote numbers in the text and at the beginning of each note.

  • In Chicago Style citations, the in-text numbering is in parentheses (1) and is followed by a period. Within the footnote, it is the number followed by a period.

Notes Style

Examples of bibliography style (a note [N], followed by a bibliographic entry [B]) taken from Chicago University Press:

  • Book
N:1. Wendy Doniger, Splitting the Difference (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 65.

B:Doniger, Wendy. Splitting the Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999

  • Chapter of a Book
N: 5. Andrew Wiese, “‘The House I Live In’: Race, Class, and African American Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States,” in The New Suburban History, ed. Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006), 101–2.

B:Wiese, Andrew. “‘The House I Live In’: Race, Class, and African American Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States.” In The New Suburban History, edited by Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue, 99–119. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

  • Electronic Book
N:2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/ (accessed June 27, 2006).

B:Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/ (accessed June 27, 2006).

  • Journal Article (Print)
N:8. John Maynard Smith, “The Origin of Altruism,” Nature 393 (1998): 639.

B:Smith, John Maynard. “The Origin of Altruism.” Nature 393 (1998): 639–40.

  • Journal Article (Electronic)
N:33. Mark A. Hlatky et al., "Quality-of-Life and Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women after Receiving Hormone Therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Trial," Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (2002), http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo (accessed January 7, 2004).

B:Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A. Whooley. "Quality-of-Life and Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women after Receiving Hormone Therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Trial." Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (February 6, 2002), http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo (accessed January 7, 2004).

  • Magazine
N:29. Steve Martin, “Sports-Interview Shocker,” New Yorker, May 6, 2002, 84.

B:Martin, Steve. “Sports-Interview Shocker.” New Yorker, May 6, 2002.

  • Newspaper
N:10. William S. Niederkorn, “A Scholar Recants on His ‘Shakespeare’ Discovery,” New York Times, June 20, 2002, Arts section, Midwest edition.

B:Niederkorn, William S. “A Scholar Recants on His ‘Shakespeare’ Discovery.” New York Times, June 20, 2002, Arts section, Midwest edition.

  • Web Source
N:11. Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees, “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000–2010: A Decade of Outreach,” Evanston Public Library, http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html (accessed June 1, 2005).

B:Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000–2010: A Decade of Outreach.” Evanston Public Library. http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html (accessed June 1, 2005).

Reference List Style

Examples of reference list style (a parenthetical citation [P], followed by a reference list entry [R]) taken from Chicago University Press.

  • Book
P:(Doniger 1999, 65)

R:Doniger, Wendy. 1999. Splitting the difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Chapter of a Book
P:(Wiese 2006, 101–2)

R:Wiese, Andrew. 2006. “The house I live in”: Race, class, and African American suburban dreams in the postwar United States. In The new suburban history, ed. Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue, 99–119. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Book (Electronic)
P:(Kurland and Lerner 1987)

R:Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/ (accessed June 27, 2006).

  • Journal (Print)
P:(Smith 1998, 639)

R:Smith, John Maynard. 1998. The origin of altruism. Nature 393: 639–40.

  • Journal (Electronic)
P:(Hlatky et al. 2002)

R:Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A. Whooley. 2002. Quality-of-life and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women after receiving hormone therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (February 6), http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo (accessed January 7, 2004).

  • Magazine Article
P:(Martin 2002, 84)

R:Martin, Steve. 2002. Sports-interview shocker. New Yorker, May 6.

  • Newspaper
P:(Niederkorn 2002)

R:Niederkorn, William S. 2002. A scholar recants on his “Shakespeare” discovery. New York Times, June 20, Arts section, Midwest edition.

  • Web Source
P:(Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees)

R:Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. Evanston Public Library strategic plan, 2000–2010: A decade of outreach. Evanston Public Library. http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html (accessed June 1, 2005).